The Study of Water Consumption Behavior Under the Societal, Industrial and Environmental Dynamics: A Confirmatory Analysis from the Metropolitan City of Karachi
Relevant studies have indicated that water consumption behavior varies with respect to different settings and inhabitants, making the resource subject to scarcity or availability problems. This study aims to identify essential paradigms for routing water preservation practices as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) suggest. Responses were gathered from Karachi (Pakistan) to enable contextualization of past knowledge with its socio-environmental structure. The objective is to gain insights into the mentioned framework to identify the collective behaviors acting within the social groups. A survey-based approach was adopted for collecting data, with observed responses amounting to 339 individuals under the simple random sampling technique, followed by inferential modeling to identify the forces present in society with respect to water consumption motives. The results following PLS Structural Equation Modeling showed that the dimensions sharing identities with pricing, quality, vicinity elements, diverse actions, and societal criticality all had roles in regulating consumption patterns, some with consumption motives, some without and some with various degrees according to circumstance ambiguity. Concerned regulations are suggested to focus on motive induction in society for awareness-based water conservation. This insight, through framework application, suggests water control implications to the local regulatory institutions, authorities, and managers.